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dc.contributor.authorKUTI, J. B.-
dc.description.abstractThe use of multimedia instructions during teaching and learning of quantum physics is becoming popular to overcome the abstract concepts within the subject as well as the resultant students‘ poor performance. It is also pertinent to consider the limitedness of the resources of working memory during multimedia instructions of abstract concepts in order to gauge irrelevant factors considered extraneous to learning which create unwanted cognitive load and hinder retention. However, the determination of the appropriate use of multimedia instruction is undergoing evolution and there is need for further study of the principles of the instructions. Split Attention, one of the theorised principles during multimedia instructions is investigated in this study in three design conditions (DCs) which are use of text with graphics delivered by a speaking agent or an instructor (DC-A), use of text with graphics and a digitised human voice (DC-B) and use of text with graphics only (DC-C). Abstract and spatial reasoning abilities were considered as moderating variables. The study adopted a 3×3×2×2 non-randomised control group factorial design in a quasi-experimental setting. Using multistage sampling technique, 247 participants from six secondary schools comprising 115 and 132 participants in Ijebu and Remo educational zones of Ogun state respectively were selected. Five data collection instruments were used, namely; Quantum Physics Pre Test (r=0.78); Cognitive Load Test (r=0.89); Abstract Reasoning Test (r=0.62); Spatial Reasoning Test (r=0.74) and Retention test in Quantum Physics (r= 0.78). Fifteen hypotheses were tested. Data were analysed using Analysis of Covariance. The main effect of treatment was significant on students‘ retention in quantum physics (F 2, 212 = 45.154; p<0.05), revealing that students exposed to multimedia instructions delivered by an instructor (DC-A) performed significantly better than students exposed to other design conditions; (x DC-A = 40.344, x DC-B= 35.798, x DC-C=31.067). The main effect of cognitive load was significant on students’ retention in physics (F 2, 212 = 3.526; p<0.05), confirming that high cognitive load during instructions minimise retention. The two way interaction effect of treatment and abstract reasoning ability was significant on students‘ retention in quantum physics (F 2,212 =3.342, p<0.05), thereby endorsing the abstract and intangible nature of quantum physics. The two way interaction effect of cognitive load and spatial reasoning ability was significant on students‘ retention in physics (F 2,212 =3.111, p<0.05), which explained the impact of cognitive load on spatial processing. The three way interaction effect of cognitive load, abstract reasoning ability and spatial reasoning ability was significant on students‘ retention in physics (F 2,212 =4.630, p<0.05). Multimedia instructions delivered by a speaking agent (DC-A) offer utmost benefit for retention. Teachers should seek ways to train students to reason abstractly in order to overcome the abstract nature of quantum physics. In the use of multimedia instruction the arrangement of graphics, animations and text must align with appropriate spatial orientation in order to minimise cognitive load during instructions. There is a need to build into the physics curriculum for teacher education and other related disciplines the appropriate use of multimedia instructions in education.en_us
dc.subjectSplit attention multimedia principleen_US
dc.subjectQuantum physicsen_US
dc.subjectCognitive loaden_US
dc.subjectSenior secondary school studentsen_US
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