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|Title:||QUALITY OF WATER FROM PROTECTED SPRINGS AND HOUSEHOLD STORAGE CONTAINERS IN FOUR LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS IN IBADAN, NIGERIA|
|Authors:||NZOM, A. T.|
Sanitary risk score
|Abstract:||Springs produce water which is considered to be wholesome. Spring water potability in Ibadan, compromised by contamination at source and consumers unhygienic household practices has not been well investigated. This study therefore assessed water quality from protected springs and household practices that may affect spring water quality in Ibadan. This cross-sectional study involved purposive selection of seven out of the 26 protected springs located in Ibadan North, Ibadan North East, Egbeda and Ona-ara Local Government Areas. A validated semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview men and women involved in water collection from 400 randomly selected households. Standardized sanitary inspection forms consisting of thirteen points for springs and household storage containers were used to collect data on the risk of contamination. Duplicate water samples were collected from springs during dry and rainy seasons for physico-chemical and bacteriological analysis, while forty spring water samples stored in household containers were also collected for bacteriological analysis using standard method adopted by the American Public Health Association. Data were analysed using descriptive, t-test and Spearman correlation statistics. The participants� mean age was 38�14.0 years and 83.4% were women. Of those who treated their water, 12% boiled the water, 9% filtered and 20% added alum before use. Thirty-three percent washed their storage containers daily, 65% of storage containers were insanitary and liable to rust, crack or leak, 55% of households had dirty ladles, and 70% of households drink from the ladle for drawing water from the containers, while animals had access to the storage containers in 17.5% of households. Faecal matter was found uphill in four springs, mechanic workshop was located beside two springs, and pool of stagnant water was found within the vicinity of three springs. Positive correlation (0.441) exists between mean sanitary risk score (8�1.9) and E.coli count (1000cfu/ml), during the rainy season, implying gross pollution of the springs and high risk to consumers. The mean physico-chemical parameters of the springs during dry and rainy seasons respectively were within the WHO limits viz: total hardness (59.4�10.7 and 50.6�8.6)mg/l, lead (0.01�0.0 and 0.01�0.0)mg/l and nitrate (8.1�2.2 and 8.5�1.6)mg/l. For three springs, electrical conductivity (777�1.4; 437.5�4.9; 789�11.3)?S/cm showed results higher than WHO/European commission limit of 400�S/cm during the rainy season. Total coliform count of the springs which greatly differed during dry (4600cfu/ml) and rainy (2250cfu/ml) seasons was significantly higher than WHO limit of 10cfu/ml. During dry season, five springs (500,1000,700,600&350cfu/100ml) had E.coli count greater than WHO recommended limit of 0cfu/100ml. Similarly, all seven springs during rainy season had E.coli count (20,25,20,1000,1800,1800&1800cfu/100ml) greater than WHO limit. E.coli count reduced significantly from source (1000cfu/100ml) to households (14cfu/100ml). There was pollution at the springs as shown by the high bacterial load, consequently, exposing consumers to the risk of water-borne diseases. This could be controlled by frequent chlorination, improvement of sanitary conditions and education on handling practices. Use of different water treatment schemes like solar disinfection is advocated, as well as regular cleaning and disinfection of storage containers.|
|Appears in Collections:||Theses & Dissertations|
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