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Authors: ADENIJI, T. A.
Keywords: Nutritional knowledge
Nutritional practice
Nutritional status
Antiretroviral Therapy clinic
Issue Date: May-2012
Abstract: Nutrition plays a critical role in promoting the health of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Nutritional problems strongly predict illness or death among PLWHA. However, the knowledge, attitude and practices relating to adequate nutrition by this group of people have not been adequately explored in Nigeria. This study was therefore carried out to determine the knowledge, attitude and nutritional practices among PLWHA who were attending Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) clinics in Ibadan and Shaki, Oyo State, Nigeria. The study was cross-sectional in design. A total of 350 respondents were selected from two ART clinics: Adeoyo Maternity Hospital, Ibadan (200) and State Hospital, Shaki (150) using systematic random sampling technique. A semi-structured questionnaire consisting of information on socio-economic characteristics, a 58-point knowledge scale [classified as poor (score < 29 points), fairly good (score 29 – 34 points), good (score 35 – 40 points) and very good (score ≥41)], Likert scale for attitude and a 22-point nutritional practice scale [classified as adequate (≥50%) and inadequate (<50%)] was used for data collection. Weight, height and Body Mass Index (BMI) of the respondents were also measured. Nutritional status of the respondents was defined as underweight (BMI <18.5kg/m2), normal weight (BMI=18.5–24.5kg/m2), overweight (BMI=25.0–29.9kg/m2) and obese (BMI ≥30.0kg/m2). Data were analysed using, descriptive statistics, t-test and Chi-square test. Mean age of respondents was 35.7 ± 11.4 years and majorities (70.9%) were Yoruba. The females (68.3%) were more than males (31.7%). Only 17.4% of respondents had no formal education while 19.4%, 27.1%, 16.9% and 36.1% had primary, secondary, post-secondary and tertiary education respectively. Majority of the respondents (76.0%) earned less than N10,000.00 per month. All the respondents were aware that adequate nutrition is crucial for their health and survival. The mean nutritional knowledge score of the respondents was 43.0 ± 4.6. There was no significant difference in the mean nutritional knowledge scores between male (42.4 ± 4.7) and female (43.2 ± 4.5). Majority (86.5%) agreed that malnutrition accelerates the progression from HIV to AIDS. More than half (63.7%) agreed that PLWHAs need better nutrition than those without HIV. Many of the respondents (64.0%) had normal weight, and a significant difference was observed in the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity between the female (6.6%, 13.4% and 9.7%) and male (1.7%, 3.1% and 1.4%) respondents respectively (p<0.05). There was a significant relationship between nutritional status and education, occupation, monthly income and housing facility of the respondents. In other hand, there was no significant relationship observed between the nutritional status and either the nutritional knowledge or practices of the respondents. People Living with HIV/AIDS had very good nutritional knowledge and positive attitudes, but adequate nutrition was only practised by about half of them. There is need to sustain awareness of and support for them to improve the practice of adequate nutrition which is crucial for their health and wellbeing.
Description: A Dissertation in the Department of Human Nutrition.Submitted to the Faculty of Public Health In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF PUBLIC HEALTH (POPULATION AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH NUTRITION) of the UNIVERSITY OF IBADAN
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