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Title: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus types I and II infections in mother-child paris in Nigeria
Authors: Olaleye, D. O.
Omotade, O. O.
Sheng, Z.
Adeyemo, A. A.
Odaibo, G. N.
Issue Date: 1999
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Abstract: "A community-based survey to determine the prevalence of human T-cell Iymphotropic type I (HTLV-I) and type II (HTLV-II) virus infections in mothers and children in south-western Nigeria was carried out using blood samples collected in 1993. A multistage cluster, random sampling procedure was used to select 460 mother-child pairs (476 children because there were 16 sets of twills) from 14 enumeration areas. A commercially available, whole HTLV-I lysate antigen-based ELISA method was used to screen for HTLV-I and HTLV-II antibodies in the samples. A synthetic peptide antigen-based ELISA was then used to differentiate between antibody reactivity to either HTLV-I or HTL V-ll. Reactivity to HTLV-I or HTLV -II antibodies was found in 43 per cent (20/460) of mothers and in 1.1 per cent (5/476) of children in both rural and urban communities and all the positive children were males. None of the 16 sets of twins in this study was positive for either HTLV-I or HTLV-ll. Also none of the mother-child paired sera tested showed concordance for either HTLV-I or HTLV-II antibody positivity. The lack of concordance between mother and child sera suggests that vertical transmission may not be the major route of transmission of HTLV infection to children in south-western Nigeria. Other modes of transmission, such as the re-use of unsterilized needles for injections and surgical knives in local scarification, which are common practices in the region, need to be investigated as they may prove to be more important than vertical transmission. These findings have important implications for any control programme for diseases that can be spread by the same routes as HTL V infection (the human immunodeficiency viruses, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C infections)."
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