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Title: Escapist Discourse Strategies in the Linguistic and Nonlinguistic Expressions of Sex and Sexuality in Nigerian Hip-Hop Lyrics and Videos
Authors: Ojoawo, A. O.
Keywords: Nigerian Hip-Hop Music and Lyrics
Cultural Restrictions
Sex and Sexuality
Linguistic and Nonlinguistic Strategies
Escapist Discourse Strategies
Issue Date: 2016
Abstract: In most Nigerian cultures, sex and sexuality are covertly expressed, but Contemporary Nigerian Hip-hop Artistes (CNHHAs) use different Escapist Discourse Strategies (EDSs) to create ambiguity and divert the attention of the Censor Board from the real sexual themes while negotiating socio-cultural restrictions in their music. Studies in the humanities and social sciences have attempted to discuss on how sex and sexuality are communicated in most Nigerian cultures. However, the (EDSs) employed by CNHHAs to maintain and negotiate socio-cultural restraints on the communication of sex, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, and intimacy in Nigerian Hip-hop music have not been given adequate scholarly attention. Therefore, this study investigated the music of selected CNHHAs, with a view to identifying the (EDSs) they employ for sex and sexual motifs in their music. Gunther Kress version of multimodality theory, which argues that all communicative events draw on multiplicity of modes, provided the framework. The lyrics and visual contents of nine CNHHAs: Wizkid, RunTown, Oritsefemi, Iyanya, Olamide, Wande Coal, Tiwa Savage, Cynthia Morgan and Seyi Shay, were purposively selected because they employed (EDSs) to discuss sexual themes. Eighteen tracks from nine albums were selected, with two uncensored tracks from each artiste. The lyrics and videos were downloaded from Youtube, 9jabaze, play something and and watched on Sound city Hip TV and MTV Base. The data were subjected to Multimodal analysis. The artistes employed fifteen linguistic strategies: ambiguity, substitution, repetition, veiling, ellipsis, exaggeration, onomatopoeia, meaning extension, metaphorisation, reference, codeswitching, slang, sexual innuendos and coinages; and thirteen nonlinguistic strategies: sexual dance, grinding, twerking, suggestive look, sexual gestures, breast-flashing, use of index finger, buttocks flashing, breast-heaving, use of tongue, alluring clothing, focusing, and gender distribution, to communicate sexual themes. Linguistic strategies differ in their ability to function as a powerful guise. Ambiguity, veiling, ellipsis, metaphorisation when merged with nonlinguistic strategies do not reveal the sexual themes until they merge with shared knowledge and context while other linguistic and nonlinguistic strategies work at par to nib, and trace the intended sexual themes. Slangy expressions, sexual innuendos, ambiguity, sexual dance, grinding and twerking are strategies for depicting sex while other strategies are used to emphasise sexuality. Sexual innuendos, metaphors and ambiguity are common to Runtown, Olamide, Wande Coal, Iyanya and Oritsefemi, while sexual gestures and sexual dance which depict erotism, dry sex and heightened romance are common to all the artistes. All the nonlinguistic and four linguistic strategies with the dominance of females in the videos, reveal the portrayal of women as sexual stimulator in the videos and lyrics. Escapist Discourse Strategies in Nigerian Hip-hop music are intentional, systematic and motivated by the artistes‟ quest to discuss sexual themes in the public space. Thus, Censor Board needs to deplore more effective ways to track down these escapist strategies and prevent them from getting to the public space
Description: A Thesis in the Department of English Submitted to the Faculty of Arts in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy of the University of Ibadan
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