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Authors: Talabi, F. M.
Keywords: Fisherfolks
Livelihood diversification
Seasonal fishing
Crop farming
Issue Date: 2016
Abstract: Fishing as the main source of livelihood by artisanal fisherfolks is declining due to climatic changes and over exploitation. Fishing income can no longer meet fisherfolks‟s needs. Alternative sources of livelihood in addition to fishing are now being explored by fisherfolks. However, information on livelihood diversification in Oyan and Ikere Gorge has not been adequately documented. Therefore, livelihood diversification of fisherfolks around Oyan and Ikere Gorge reservoirs in Ogun and Oyo states, respectively was investigated.A two-stage sampling procedure was used to select respondents. Two reservoirs: Oyan and Ikere Gorge within the Ogun-Oshun River Basin were purposively selected. A total of 264 and 129 fisherfolks [Fishermen (35, 51), net makers (18, 21), fish processors (81, 42), fish dealers (77, 10), and boat builders (2, 3)] were randomly selected proportionate to size in Oyan and Ikere Gorge, respectively. An interview schedule was used to obtain data on fisherfolks‟s socio-economic characteristics, livelihood activities, extent of diversification, seasonal income, social capital, natural capital and diversification constraints in wet and dry seasons.Herfindahl Diversification Index (HDI) was determined and data were analysed using descriptive statistic, t-test and the probit regression model at α0.05. Many fisherfolks (63.0%) were male, 78.7% were below 51 years of age and 93.3% were married. Primary occupation was fishing (32.3%, 40.2%), while secondary occupation was crop farming (51.2%; 38.3%) with house hold size of 7.2±5.6 and 7.8±3.9 around Oyan and Ikere Gorge reservoirs, respectively. In wet and dry seasons, fishermen around Oyan reservoir diversified into crop farming (58.7%; 50.0%), while net makers diversified into sales of patent medicines (63.6%) and commercial motorbike riding (58.8%), respectively. Fishermen around Ikere Gorge reservoir diversified into crop farming (76.7%; 75.9%); fish dealers into petty trading (66.7%; 33.3%) in wet and dry seasons, respectively. Poor transportation (98.9%) and restriction on the use of motorised boats (94.4%) in Oyan; inadequate extension services (96.8%) and distance to market (100%) in Ikere were major constraints to livelihood diversification. Net makers were the most diversified in Oyan (0.90; 0.63) and in Ikere (0.91; 0.56) both in wet and dry seasons, respectively. Fishermen had the least diversified activities in Oyan with HDI of 0.16 (wet), and HDI of 0.12 (dry) seasons, respectively. Boat builders had the least diversified activities in Ikere gorge reservoir in wet season with HDI of 0.25. Fish processors had the least with HDI of 0.28. Social capital (2.18) and age (0.06) significantly influence the probability of diversifying into different livelihood activities, while natural capital (-5.12) and gender (-0.66) negatively influenced livelihood diversification among fisherfolks in both reservoirs. Diversified income proportion was highest among fishermen (23.7%) and boat makers (31.4%) in wet season, while net makers (30.0%) and fish dealers (27.2%) had the highest in dry season. The mean income of net makers (N10,909±3.1; N33,125±1.7) in Oyan was significantly different from those in Ikere Gorge (N21,727±2.1; N17,777±2.8) in wet and dry seasons, respectively. Fisherfolks in Oyan and Ikere Gorge reservoirs diversified mostly into crop farming and petty trading. Age was an important determinant of diversification
Description: A Thesis in the Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, Submitted to the Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY of the UNIVERSITY OF IBADAN
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